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2017-08-20

Difference of exercise, drill, practice, rehearse, train

日本語の「練習」に訳されることのある英単語(exercise, drill, practice, rehearse, train)の違いをまとめた。

LONGMANの英英辞典で,これらの単語の意味を調べ,それぞれのイメージを把握して使い分けを考えた。各単語の英英辞典の記載内容を引用し,それぞれのイメージを説明しまとめた。なお,英語は動詞がメインの言語であるので,英英辞典は動詞の意味を参照した。

exercise

1 use something [transitive] formal to use a power, right, or quality that you have
2 do physical activity [intransitive] to do sports or physical activities in order to stay healthy and become stronger
3 use part of your body [transitive] to make a particular part of your body move in order to make it stronger
4 animal [transitive] to make an animal walk or run in order to keep it healthy and strong
5 make somebody think [transitive] formal
a) to make someone think about a subject or problem and consider how to deal with it
b) British English if something exercises someone, they think about it all the time and are very anxious or worried – often used humorously
exercise | meaning of exercise in Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English | LDOCE

身体的な動きを伴うイメージ。スポーツや楽器の練習の意味に適している。

drill

1 [intransitive, transitive] to make a hole in something using a drill
2 [transitive] to teach students, sports players etc by making them repeat the same lesson, exercise etc many times
3 [transitive] to train soldiers to march or perform other military actions
4 [transitive] to plant seeds in rows using a machine
drill | meaning of drill in Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English | LDOCE

学生やスポーツ選手などの集団に,教えたり,何回も反復させること。学校での課題演習など,反復練習の意味で使うのに適している。

practise/practice

イギリス英語ではpractiseをpracticeの動詞として使う。アメリカ英語は同じ。

1 [intransitive, transitive] to do an activity, often regularly, in order to improve your skill or to prepare for a test
2 [transitive] to use a particular method or custom
3 [intransitive, transitive] to work as a doctor or lawyer
4 [transitive] if you practise a religion, system of ideas etc, you live your life according to its rules
5 → practise what you preach
practise | meaning of practise in Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English | LDOCE

技能向上の目的のための活動。一般的な練習のイメージ。

rehearse

1 [intransitive, transitive] to practise or make people practise something such as a play or concert in order to prepare for a public performance
2 [transitive] to practise something that you plan to say to someone
3 [transitive] formal to repeat an opinion that has often been expressed before
rehearse | meaning of rehearse in Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English | LDOCE

何かの準備のために行うイメージ。演劇,コンサート,ショーなどの公開発表の練習の意味に適している。説明の中に,practiseの単語があるように,practiceの特殊なケース。

train

1 teach somebody [intransitive, transitive] to teach someone the skills of a particular job or activity, or to be taught these skills → training
2 teach an animal [transitive] to teach an animal to do something or to behave correctly
3 prepare for sport [intransitive, transitive] to prepare for a sports event or tell someone how to prepare for it, especially by exercising → training
4 aim something [transitive] to aim something such as a gun or camera at someone or something
5 develop something [transitive] to develop and improve a natural ability or quality
6 plant [transitive] to make a plant grow in a particular direction by bending, cutting, or tying it
train | meaning of train in Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English | LDOCE

指導(教える,教わる)が入るイメージ。exerciseに指導が入った場合もこれになる。いわゆるダンベルなどの(指導員のつかない)自主トレーニングはexerciseであり,部活動など監督者のいる運動はtrainになると思われる。

Summary

ここまでの英単語のイメージを以下の表にまとめた。

練習を意味する各単語のイメージ
Word Image
exercise 身体的な運動を伴うもの
drill 集団への反復が伴うもの
practice 技能向上のためのもの
rehearse 準備として行うもの
train 指導が入るもの

個人的なイメージとしては,practiceが最上位に位置し,その他の単語はpracticeの特殊な事例のように感じた。

プログラミングや語学学習や資格試験のための「練習」はpracticeで問題ないように思った。

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